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scheme中文编程

受javaeye上的《 》启发,帖子中有人提到如果if这样的关键字都可以定义成中文,那就是真正的中文编程。那时我就想到,这个其实要在scheme中实现是多么简单,将sicp书中的解释器稍微修改下就可以了,只要修改解析的部分即可。解释器的完整代码放后面,我们先看看有趣的例子:

(定义 你  ' 男)
(当 ((是 你  ' 男) (打印  ' 男人是泥土做的))
    ((是 你 
' 女) (打印  ' 女人是水做的))
    (否则
         (打印 
' 妖怪啊)))


    其实呢,“定义”等价于define,“当”等价于cond,“打印”等价于display,说穿了不值一提,只是有趣罢了。不过设想在某些效率不是攸关的场景嵌入这么一个scheme解释器来定义dsl给业务人员使用,似乎也是不错的主意。当然这里还是scheme的前缀表达式,再修改下就可以像自然语言那样流畅,只不过括号还是少不了呀。

    再看几个例子:

(使得 ((a  3 )
       (b 
2 ))
       (
 a b))

(定义 成绩 
90 )
(如果 (
>  成绩  80 )
      (打印 
' 良好)
      (打印  ' 要打pp了))
((函数(x) (* x x)) 3)  => 9

(定义 (平方 x) (* x x))
(平方 3)               =>9

   
    “使得”就是let,如果就是if,函数就是lambda。这不是中文编程吗?也许可以考虑申请国家专项资金来扶持:d

    完整的解释器代码,在drscheme选择r5rs标准下测试通过:

 

(define apply-in-underlying-scheme apply)
(define (eval exp env)
  ((analyze exp) env))
(define (analyze exp)
  (cond ((self-evaluating? exp)
         (analyze-self-evaluating exp))
        ((quoted? exp)
         (analyze-quoted exp))
        ((variable? exp)
         (analyze-variable exp))
        ((assignment? exp)
         (analyze-assignment exp))
        ((definition? exp)
         (analyze-definition exp))
        ((if? exp)
         (analyze-if exp))
        ((lambda? exp)
         (analyze-lambda exp))
        ((begin? exp)
         (analyze-sequence (begin-actions exp)))
        ((cond? exp)
         (analyze (cond->if exp)))
        ((let? exp) (analyze (let->combination exp)))
        ((application? exp)(analyze-application exp))
        (else
           (error "unknown expression type--analyze" exp))))
(define (apply procedure arguments)
  (cond ((primitive-procedure? procedure)
         (apply-primitive-procedure procedure arguments))
        ((compound-procedure? procedure)
         (eval-sequence 
          (procedure-body procedure)
          (extend-environment (procedure-parameters procedure)
                              arguments
                              (procedure-environment procedure))))
        (else
           (error "unknown procedure type --apply" procedure))))
(define (self-evaluating? exp)
  (cond ((number? exp) #t)
        ((string? exp) #t)
        (else
           #f)))
(define (variable? exp) (symbol? exp))
(define (quoted? exp)
  (tagged-list? exp 'quote))
(define (text-of-quotation exp)
  (cadr exp))
(define (tagged-list? exp tag)
  (if (pair? exp)
      (eq? (car exp) tag)
      #f))
(define (assignment? exp)
  (tagged-list? exp '设置))
(define (assignment-variable exp)
  (cadr exp))
(define (assignment-value exp)
  (caddr exp))
(define (definition? exp)
  (tagged-list? exp '定义))
(define (definition-variable exp)
  (if (symbol? (cadr exp))
      (cadr exp)
      (caadr exp)))
(define (definition-value exp)
  (if (symbol? (cadr exp))
      (caddr exp)
      (make-lambda (cdadr exp)
                   (cddr exp))))
(define (lambda? exp)
  (tagged-list? exp '函数))
(define (lambda-parameters exp)
  (cadr exp))
(define (lambda-body exp)
  (cddr exp))
(define (make-lambda parameters body)
  (cons '函数 (cons parameters body)))
(define (if? exp)
  (tagged-list? exp '如果))
(define (if-predicate exp) (cadr exp))
(define (if-consequent exp) (caddr exp))
(define (if-alternative exp)
  (if (not (null? (cdddr exp)))
      (cadddr exp)
      'false))
(define (make-if predicate consequent alternative)
  (list '如果 predicate consequent alternative))
(define (begin? exp)
  (tagged-list? exp '开始))
(define (begin-actions exp) (cdr exp))
(define (last-exp? exps) (null? (cdr exps)))
(define (first-exp exps) (car exps))
(define (rest-exps exps) (cdr exps))
(define (make-begin seq) (cons '开始 seq))
(define (sequence->exp seq)
  (cond ((null? seq) seq)
        ((last-exp? seq) (first-exp seq))
        (else
           (make-begin seq))))
(define (application? exp)
  (pair? exp))
(define (operator exp)
  (car exp))
(define (operands exp)
  (cdr exp))
(define (no-operands? ops) (null? ops))
(define (first-operand ops) (car ops))
(define (rest-operands ops) (cdr ops))
(define (let? exp)
  (tagged-list? exp '使得))
(define (make-define var parameters body)
  (list '定义 (cons var parameters) body))
(define (let->combination exp)
  (if (symbol? (cadr exp))
      (let ((var (cadr exp))
            (vars (map car (caddr exp)))
            (vals (map cadr (caddr exp)))
            (pairs (caddr exp))
            (body (cadddr exp)))
        (cons (make-lambda vars (list (make-define var vars body) body)) vals))
      (let ((vars (map car (cadr exp)))
            (vals (map cadr (cadr exp)))
            (body (caddr exp)))
              (cons (make-lambda vars (list body)) vals))))
(define (cond? exp)
  (tagged-list? exp '当))
(define (cond-clauses exp) (cdr exp))
(define (cond-else-clauses? clause)
  (eq? (cond-predicate clause) '否则))
(define (cond-extended-clauses? clause)
  (and (> (length clause) 2) (eq? (cadr clause) '=>)))
(define (extended-cond-test clause)
  (car clause))
(define (extended-cond-recipient clause)
  (caddr clause)) 
(define (cond-predicate clause) (car clause))
(define (cond-actions clause) (cdr clause))
(define (cond->if exp)
  (expand-clauses (cond-clauses exp)))
(define (expand-clauses clauses)
  (if (null? clauses)
      'false
      (let ((first (car clauses))
            (rest (cdr clauses)))
        (cond ((cond-else-clauses? first)
                (if (null? rest)
                    (sequence->exp (cond-actions first))
                    (error "else clause is not last" clauses)))
              ((cond-extended-clauses? first)
               (make-if
                   (extended-cond-test first)
                    (list
                      (extended-cond-recipient first)
                      (extended-cond-test first))
                      (expand-clauses rest)))
              (else
               (make-if (cond-predicate first)
                        (sequence->exp (cond-actions first))
                        (expand-clauses rest)))))))
(define (true? exp)
  (or (eq? exp 'true) exp))
(define (false? exp)
  (or (eq? exp 'false) exp))
(define (make-procedure parameters body env)
  (list 'procedure parameters body env))
(define (compound-procedure? p)
  (tagged-list? p 'procedure))
(define (procedure-parameters p)
  (cadr p))
(define (procedure-body p)
  (caddr p))
(define (procedure-environment p)
  (cadddr p))
(define (enclosing-environment env) (cdr env))
(define (first-frame env) (car env))
(define the-empty-environment '())
(define (make-frame variables values)
  (cons variables values))
(define (frame-variables f)
  (car f))
(define (frame-values f)
  (cdr f))
(define (add-binding-to-frame! var val frame)
  (set-car! frame (cons var (car frame)))
  (set-cdr! frame (cons val (cdr frame))))
(define (extend-environment vars vals base-env)
  (if (= (length vars) (length vals))
      (cons (make-frame vars vals) base-env)
      (if (< (length vars) (length vals))
          (error "too many arguments supplied" vars vals)
          (error "too few arguments supplied" vars vals))))
(define (lookup-variable-value var env)
  (define (env-loop env)
    (define (scan vars vals)
      (cond ((null? vars)
             (env-loop (enclosing-environment env)))
            ((eq? var (car vars))
             (car vals))
            (else
              (scan (cdr vars) (cdr vals)))))
    (if (eq? env the-empty-environment)
        (error "unbound variable" var)
        (let ((frame (first-frame env)))
          (scan (frame-variables frame)
                (frame-values frame)))))
  (env-loop env))
(define (set-variable-value! var val env)
  (define (env-loop env)
    (define (scan vars vals)
      (cond ((null? vars)
             (env-loop (enclosing-environment env)))
            ((eq? var (car vars))
             (set-car! vals val))
            (else
              (scan (cdr vars) (cdr vals)))))
    (if (eq? env the-empty-environment)
        (error "unbound variable --set!" var)
        (let ((frame (first-frame env)))
          (scan (frame-variables frame)
                (frame-values frame)))))
  (env-loop env))
(define (define-variable! var val env)
  (let ((frame (first-frame env)))
    (define (scan vars vals)
      (cond ((null? vars)
             (add-binding-to-frame! var val frame))
            ((eq? (car vars) var)
             (set-car! vals val))
            (else
               (scan (cdr vars) (cdr vals)))))
    (scan (frame-variables frame)
          (frame-values frame))))
(define (primitive-procedure? p)
  (tagged-list? p 'primitive))
(define (primitive-implementation proc) (cadr proc))
(define primitive-procedures
  (list (list 'car car) 
        (list 'cdr cdr)
        (list 'cons cons)
        (list 'null? null?)
        (list '   )
        (list '- -)
        (list '* *)
        (list '/ /)
        (list '< <)
        (list '> >)
        (list '是 equal?)
        (list '= =)
        (list 'assoc assoc)
        (list 'cadr cadr)
        (list 'cadr caddr)
        (list '打印 display)
        (list '换行 newline)
        (list '映射 map)))
(define (primitive-procedure-names)
  (map car primitive-procedures)
  )
(define (primitive-procedure-objects)
  (map (lambda(proc) (list 'primitive (cadr proc))) primitive-procedures))
(define (setup-environment)
  (let ((initial-env
           (extend-environment (primitive-procedure-names)
                               (primitive-procedure-objects)
                               the-empty-environment)))
    (define-variable! 'true #t initial-env)
    (define-variable! 'false #f initial-env)
    initial-env))
(define the-global-environment (setup-environment))
(define (apply-primitive-procedure proc args)
  (apply-in-underlying-scheme (primitive-implementation proc) args))
(define input-prompt ";;; m-eval input:")
(define out-prompt ";;; m-eval value:")
(define (prompt-for-input string)
  (newline)
  (newline)
  (display string)
  (newline))
(define (announce-output string)
  (newline)
  (display string)
  (newline))
(define (user-print object)
  (if (compound-procedure? object)
      (display (list 'compound-procedure
                     (procedure-parameters object)
                     (procedure-body object)
                     '))
      (display object)))
(define (drive-loop)
  (prompt-for-input input-prompt)
  (let ((input (read)))
    (let ((output (eval input the-global-environment)))
      (announce-output out-prompt)
      (user-print output)))
  (drive-loop))
;接下来是分析过程
(define (analyze-self-evaluating exp)
  (lambda(env) exp))
(define (analyze-variable exp)
  (lambda(env) (lookup-variable-value exp env)))
(define (analyze-quoted exp)
  (let ((qval (text-of-quotation exp)))
    (lambda(env) qval)))
(define (analyze-assignment exp)
  (let ((var (assignment-variable exp))
        (vproc (analyze (assignment-value exp))))
    (lambda(env)
        (set-variable-value! var (vproc env) env)
        'ok)))
(define (analyze-definition exp)
  (let ((var (definition-variable exp))
        (vproc (analyze (definition-value exp))))
    (lambda(env)
      (define-variable! var (vproc env) env)
      'ok)))
(define (analyze-if exp)
  (let ((pproc (analyze (if-predicate exp)))
        (cproc (analyze (if-consequent exp)))
        (aproc (analyze (if-alternative exp))))
    (lambda(env)
      (if (true? (pproc env))
          (cproc env)
          (aproc env)))))
(define (analyze-lambda exp)
  (let ((vars (lambda-parameters exp))
        (bproc (analyze-sequence (lambda-body exp))))
    (lambda(env) (make-procedure vars bproc env))))
(define (analyze-sequence exps)
  (define (sequentially proc1 proc2)
    (lambda(env) (proc1 env) (proc2 env)))
  (define (loop first-proc rest-proc)
    (if (null? rest-proc)
        first-proc
        (loop (sequentially first-proc (car rest-proc))
              (cdr rest-proc))))
  (let ((procs (map analyze exps))
        )
    (if (null? procs)
        (error "empty sequence --analyze")
        (loop (car procs) (cdr procs)))))
(define (analyze-application exp)
  (let ((fproc (analyze (operator exp)))
        (aprocs (map analyze (operands exp))))
    (lambda(env)
      (execution-application (fproc env)
                             (map (lambda (aproc) (aproc env)) aprocs)))))
(define (execution-application proc args)
  (cond ((primitive-procedure? proc)
         (apply-primitive-procedure proc args))
        ((compound-procedure? proc)
         ((procedure-body proc)
           (extend-environment (procedure-parameters proc)
                              args
                              (procedure-environment proc))))
        (else
         (error "unknown procedure type --execute--application" proc))))
(drive-loop)
        
                 
 
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2 楼 2009-07-10  
scheme确实不错的,阅读起来很锻炼逻辑思维
1 楼 2009-05-24  

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